Answered By: Mary Rickelman
Last Updated: Jan 24, 2024     Views: 82

An interview is not considered recoverable data, so no reference to this is provided in the reference list. You may, however, cite the interview within the text as a personal communication. "Use a personal communication citation only when a recoverable source is not available."

Examples of personal communication -- "emails, text messages, online chats or direct messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, nonarchived social media livestreams (e.g., Instagram Live, Twitter Spaces), unrecorded webinars, unrecorded classroom lectures, memos, letters, messages from nonarchived discussion groups or online bulletin boards etc."

Narrative citation: E.-M. Paradis (personal communication, August 8, 2019)

Parenthetical citation: (T. Nguyen, personal communication, February 24, 2020)


Search Frequently Asked Questions

Related Topics

Ask Us

Visit Us at the Library Service Desk
Visit Us at the Library Service Desk
Call or Text Us: 407-476-8599
Call or Text Us: 407-476-8599

671 Winyah Dr.
Orlando, FL 32803